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The University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary.
All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce thisbook or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. The University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary has been compiled for the general use of the American English-speaking learner of Spanish and the Spanish-speaking learner of American English. With this purpose in mind, the editors of the fifth edition have introduced a number of significant improvements.
One of the most important changes is the ad- dition of many new words and meanings in order to bring the dictionary up to date with the latest technical advancements and cultural changes. Especially significant are additions in the fields of medicine anorexia antioxidant clone , , , defibrillate, gene splicing, HIV, hypoglycemia, liposuction, mammography, melanoma, metastasis, progesterone, scoli- osis , electronics CD, fax, magnetic resonance imaging, microwave, satellite dish , com- puters browser cache, chat room, megabyte, on-line, scanner, search engine, URL, website , ,.
Recent cultural phenomena are captured in items such as bungee jumping, e-. In order to provide the most up-to-date picture of the language, many obso- lescent or obsolete terms have been eliminated, such as aught, ere, forenoon, fortnight, kerchief, knave, morrow, and o'er. Another significant improvement in the fifth edition is the consistent use of parenthetical words meant to guide the choice of equivalents from a series. For ex- ample, among the various equivalents of soft, the user is advised to choose blando to apply to butter, suave to apply to skin, and tenue to apply to light.
Similarly, users are.
A change that will enhance the usability of the dictionary is the integration into the entries themselves of material that was formerly presented in charts and lists, such as idioms, proverbs, names of nations, and cardinal and ordinal numbers.
The amount and quality of grammatical information has been expanded. For the first time, gender markings for Spanish noun equivalents are provided on the English-Spanish side, thus freeing users from having to seek this information on the Spanish-English side. Additionally, transitive and intransitive verbal meanings are distinguished.
The frequent references to regional usage characteristic of the fourth edition have been de-emphasized here, partly for reasons of space, partly because of the notorious unreliability of the available information on regional dialects. In the present edition, such information is provided only where a word of more general currency might not be understood see the various equivalents of Eng.
Gragg, Eric P. Hamp, Salikoko Mufwene, and Michael Silverstein. Este libro se ha compilado para el uso general del anglohablante estadounidense que estudia español y para el hispanohablante que estudia el inglés americano. De especial importancia son las incorporaciones en los campos de la medicina anorexia antioxidante, clon, desfibrilar, ,.
Por ejemplo, entre los difer- entes equivalentes de destino, se advierte al usuario que opte por fate cuando significa 'hado', por destination cuando significa 'lugar adonde se viaja' y por use cuando significa 'uso'.
También se ha incrementado cantidad y calidad de la información gramatical. Por primera vez se proporcionan marcas de género gramatical para los sustantivos las en la sección inglés-español, lo cual elimina la necesidad de consultar la sección es- pañol-inglés para obtener esta información. En comparación con la edición anterior, la nueva insiste mucho menos en las en el vocabulario del español, en parte por razones de espacio diferencias dialectales.
En la presente edición las referencias al léxico regional se limitan a unos cuantos tipos de términos, concretamente, aquellos que pueden resultar desconocidos en una determinada comunidad lingüística como los muchos. El Director y la Editorial de la Universidad de Chicago desean expresar su gratitud por las contribuciones a la planificación de la obra hechas por los miembros del Consejo concretamente por Paolo Cherchi, Gene Editorial, B. Alphabetical order is observed irrespective of hyphens or spaces, such that air condi- tioner precedes aircraft and middle school precedes middle-sized.
Regarding Spanish, according to the current policy of the Spanish Royal Academy , ch and II are no longer recognized as separate letters, such that ch 1. Compounds listed within entries are also alphabetized. However, the need to list compounds under their first element sometimes interferes with alphabetization, as when slumlord, a compound listed under slum, comes before the next headword, slum- ber, even though strict alphabetization would require the reverse.
Spelling of English words reflects common American usage, variants being noted where applicable ax, axe; sulphur, sulfur, stymie, stymy.
The spelling of Spanish words, where possible, follows the conventions of the Spanish Royal Academy. Bahrain, which. In these cases, we either opt for the form that appears to be most generally accepted or provide multiple equivalents. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, , El País: ,. Libro de estilo, 9th ed.
Madrid: Ediciones El País, How to Use the Dictionary. Some categories of words are systematically omitted from the vocabulary entries. First, irregular English past tense and participial forms e. Second, adverbial forms in -ly English and -mente Spanish are included only when their usage and meaning are not transparently derivable from their adjec- tival bases.
Thus, clearly is omitted, as its usage is predictable from its adjectival base in a clear way' , while surely is included, since it means, in addition to 'in a sure. Similarly, claramente 'clearly' is omitted, while atentamente is retained, since the latter, in addition to meaning 'in an attentive manner', is also used as a farewell, equivalent to 'yours truly'.
Third, English nouns in -ing and adjectives in -ed, which may appear as glosses of Spanish words, are not always accorded separate entries on the English-Spanish side, due to their derivational regularity and to considerations of space.
Spelling variants, if any, follow the most frequent form, which appears first. In Spanish, occupational designations, titles, and kinship terms are. Pronunciation of English words is indicated through a mod- ified version of the International Phonetic Alphabet, whose conventions are ex- plained on p.
The University of Chicago Spanish dictionary Spanish-English, E.pdf
No individual transcription of Spanish words is required, given the simplicity and consistency of the Spanish orthographic system. The exception to this rule is that nouns on the Spanish-English. Order of meanings within an entry reflects frequency of usage. Where more than one grammatical category can be rendered by the same gloss, the two are listed together, cf.
How- Traditionally, Spanish adjectives are listed in their masculine ever, where the adjective normally functions as a noun as well, it is shown with both masculine and feminine forms if both are possible, cf. Not infrequently, however, Spanish glosses of English intransitives require the addition of the pronominal particle -se.
Where an English verb can be used both transitively and intransitively and its Spanish equivalent is only intransitive, the latter may some-. Thus, English fight is glossed as pelear con to show that its in-.
Again for reasons of economy, pronominal forms of Spanish verbs are omit- ted in two cases: First, when the particle - se functions as a direct object, either reflexive or reciprocal, cf. Whenever a word, within a grammatical category, is considered to have two or more meanings, these are differentiated by means of delimiters, that is, explanatory markers.
Most commonly, synonyms are used, cf. Thus, transitive verbs are sometimes best differentiated according to the objects they take, cf. Similarly, adjectives may be most easily distinguished by showing the ref- erents to which they regularly apply, cf. Not infrequently, a single equivalent covers almost all meanings of a headword in a single gram- matical category.
In such cases, only the "exceptional" meaning, placed second, is delimited. For example, the equivalent of Eng. Although delimiters typically precede the gloss they are meant to distinguish, occasionally they are placed afterward.
In these cases they are meant to erase doubts about the applicability of a given gloss in a specific secondary context, cf. Insofar as is possible, glosses are intended to match the headword in terms of meaning, register, and frequency. Thus, cop is glossed as poli rather than the more formal policía.
Similarly, orirnr is glossed as to urinate rather than the informal and vulgar to piss. Semicolons, on the other hand, if. No systematic attempt has been made to reflect regional usage in either English or Spanish, since in the great majority of cases a word of more general currency is among the many Spanish available as a gloss. Thus, equivalents of Eng. However, Spanish regional usage is marked where any of the following conditions are met: 1 there is no term of international currency, or it might not be understood in a given location cf.
Because, as mentioned earlier, equivalents are chosen in order to match headwords in all aspects of their meaning, including register and frequency, stylistic markers are only infrequently employed. They are included, redundantly, in the case of taboo or offensive words, in order to provide a second level of warning to potential users. Thus, whereas there is no need to mark the Spanish gloss tonto as familiar, since it is meant to be equivalent to the equally familiar Eng.
Taboo and offensive words are included in this dictionary because of its purely descriptive rather than prescriptive nature; that is, this dictionary is in- tended to reflect how the vocabularies of English and Spanish are actually used by their speakers, rather than how we or other people may feel that they should be used. The inclusion of vulgar and offensive words here should not be construed as an indication that we condone or encourage their use.
Ease of usage would dictate that each lexical item receive its own economy this is not possible in a concise dictionary. This entry, but for reasons of explains why compound words, which are composed of two or more preexisting words, are listed in almost all cases under the entry of their initial constituent, at the end of the corresponding grammatical category.
Thus, doghouse is listed as —house, under There are certain exceptions to this convention, however. First, compounds are listed under the headword of their second constituent when.
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Thus, to have a good time, glossed divertirse, is. Second, English compounds whose first element is a preposition offsides outcast, overcome are listed as separate headwords, chiefly ,. Conversely, derived words, that is, words that contain one or more affixes e.
Appearing together with the compound words per- tinent to any given grammatical category are illustrative phrases, a category de- fined so as to include idioms, collocations, proverbs, and, especially, sentences required to clarify usage in some way, as when the usage of gustarle a uno as a gloss of to like is illustrated by the phrase he likes dogs, with the translation le. Se respeta orden alfabético, independientemente de la presencia de guiones o es- el.
Los homógrafos se ubican en una sola entrada lie 'mentir' y lie 'yacer', ambos con la pronunciación [lai] , y se indican sus distintas pronunciaciones si cor- responde e. Asimismo, los compuestos incluidos dentro de una entrada determinada aparecen en orden alfabético a continuación de su primer elemento, lo cual a veces interfiere con el orden alfabético general. Así, por ejemplo, rompeolas aparece a continuación de romper porque se trata de un compuesto de dicho verbo, si bien el orden alfabético ,.
La ortografía de los vocablos ingleses refleja el uso general en inglés americano, y las. La ortografía española sigue las convenciones de la Real Academia Española.
Para la. En primer lugar, las formas irregulares de los pretéritos y participios pasados del inglés e. En segundo lugar, las formas adverbiales en -mente español y en -ly inglés , se incluyen solamente cuando su uso y significado no pueden deducirse claramente de sus bases adjetivas.
Finalmente, debe notarse que los sus- tantivos ingleses terminados en -ing y los adjetivos en -ed, que pueden aparecer como traducción de palabras españolas en la parte español-inglés, no figuran siempre como cabezas de artículo en la parte inglés-español debido a la total regularidad de su for- mación y a consideraciones de espacio.
En español, las desig- a la naciones de profesiones y oficios, los títulos y las relaciones de parentesco apa- recen tanto en la forma masculina como en la femenina, como por ejemplo, abogado -da. La pronunciación de las palabras inglesas se indica mediante una versión modificada del Alfabético Fonético Internacional, cuyas convenciones se explican en la p.
No se requiere transcripción individual de las palabras españolas, gracias a simplicidad y sistema ticidad de la ortografía española.